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The radio-electric transducers, better known as radio antennas, in
the light of the new discoveries.
by Francesco Errante
In physics, by the word "transducers ", we define
all of those devices capable of transforming a form of energy into another
one and vice-versa. Generally, during the transformation performed by the
transducers, an ordained form of energy gets transformed into a disordered one
and vice-versa. As an example: loudspeakers and microphones are
electro-mechanical transducers. They, infact, transform electric energy into
mechanical vibrations and vice-versa. Radio antennas are, instead,
"radio-electric transducers", they transform radio-frequency
electric energy into hertzian
radiation (radio-waves) and vice-versa.
Unlike what happens with other types of transducers, understanding how
radio-electric transducers work cannot be done by intuition. That's because
they have no machanical parts in motion and their "vibrations" cannot be
directly perceived by the human body. To tell the truth, under certain
conditions (frequency, power and distance from the source), the human body
can feel some of the effects of the hertzian radiation, as a
distributed heat or a localized burn, but this was not enough to discover the
real mechanism at the origins of the radio waves' phenomenon.
For more than a century and indeed, ever since Heinrich Hertz
demonstrated the existence of the radio-electric phenomena, their
"scientific" description has been limited to a mere theoretical
representation by mathematics. In the year 2003, the Author has, letterally
and definitely, shed some light on the real mechanism at the origins of the
hertzian radiation, by means of his own particular detection system based on the radioluminescence,
another physical phenomenon of energy transformation.
Untill recent, the radio-electric transdusers have been divided in two main
types: the balanced and the un-balanced ones. In the ligth ofwhat the
Author has demonstrated, the said division should now be
revised. Accordingly, the radio-electric transdusers should be distinguished
in two categories: the "elementary " ones and the
"NON-elementary " ones.
(by definition an elementary radio-electric transducer is a
transducer where the condition of resonance and radiation cannot take place
without the presence of all its parts)
The elementary radio-electric transducers are monopolos (un-balanced antennas), while the
NON-elementary ones are dipoles (balanced antennas). Both types of
transducers can be open ended or closed circuits as loops.
It has to be clarified that loops are, also, often improperly
referred to as "folded". This is incorrect as, in radio-engineering, it is
possible to have folded antennas that are electrically open. Dipoles can be open dipoles or
of a closed circuit type, incorrectly called "folded dipoles".
However, the latter is the father of all the loops. The folded dipole, as demonstrated, can be traced back to two closed-circuit
monopoles fed in a counter-phase arrangement and physically coinciding with
each other. This is, also, true for loops having any geometry (e.g.
circular, delta-loop, polygonal etc.). Any NON-elementary radio-electric transducer (balanced transducers)
can always been traced back to a system of elementary transducers (unbalanced
transdusers) being arranged in a counterphase configuration.
The incorrect spacing-up between elementary radio sources belonging to the
same system will give origin to self-antagonist
systems to the detriment of the antenna's gain.
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